B cell memory
After activation by antigen, mature naive B cells migrate to the edge of the follicles, where they receive help from cognate T cells. If the B cells express the appropriate molecules, such as a combination of B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand (ICOSL), CD40 and B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1), the interaction of the B cells and T cells leads to the formation of short-lived plasma cells and to the establishment of germinal centres in the follicles. In the germinal centre, proliferating antigen-specific B cells (known as centroblasts) are localized at one pole (the dark zone), whereas their non-proliferating immunoglobulin-expressing counterparts (known as centrocytes) localize at the other pole (the light zone). Centrocytes and centroblasts cycle within the germinal centre in a chemokine-driven process. Centrocytes can differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells, or undergo apoptosis if they fail to receive an antigen-mediated survival signal. Although expression of BLIMP1 is crucial for the formation of plasma cells, the factors that control memory B-cell formation are less well defined. Memory B cells recirculate in the periphery, whereas germinal-centre-derived plasma cells accumulate preferentially in the bone marrow.
Phases of TD response  
Primary vs secondary TD responses  

STOPENTERICS is a unique alliance of independent organizations around the world dedicated to accelerating the development of a Shigella and ETEC vaccines for children of the developing world.


  • to provide the “proof of concept” in humans for two newly available Shigella and ETEC vaccine candidates, respectively,
  • to develop innovative strategies to overcome one still unsolved major challenging roadblock, i.e. the need of developing multivalent vaccines
  • to improve the immunogenicity of the polysaccharide part of LPS, i.e.the O-antigen (O-Ag) of prevalent endemic Shigella, and contribute to modifying the ETEC ST toxin into a nontoxic and immunogenic toxoid.

STOPENTERICS will provide high-standard training capacities for young investigators within the consortium by promoting training in vaccinology focusing on some of the crucial steps in developing vaccines against enteric diseases.

The following courses will take place during the timeframe of the project:

  • overview of an integrative discipline through the Vaccinology Course at IP;
  • training in clinical evaluation and immunomonitoring of enteric candidate vaccines at TAU and ICDDR,B
  • training on conjugate vaccines at NVI
  • building-up a STOPENTERICS active internet-based distance learning core facility. Therefore, trainees having difficulties to enroll in formalized programs due to their remote distance from academic centers or conflicting professional activities will be able to participate actively in the eTraining program developed in this project.

Last update: Monday, January 4, 2016
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